The passages are interesting and well illustrated for generating questions. Administrator A: In India it is important for children in primary school to see school as fun and learning as interesting. Teacher F; Using a variety of teaching methods is important because we want children to enjoy school. Teacher A: Each teacher here wants a warm rapport. There is freedom but no one can ridicule or mock. Teacher G: The readers are culturally and age-relevant, and have an offering of different styles, short story, poetry, and plays. Teacher B: We have many celebrations. We celebrate our holidays, but others also.
At Christmas time we place a Christmas tree in the entrance. Teacher F: By the time students reach level V, there is a more rigorous academic approach, but we play games, do role playing and sing songs. Teacher C: The art, music and dance classes are more relaxed times and when the performances happen, it is lovely occasions. Teacher D: Children are not afraid to speak with the teacher.
Evidence-Based Reading Intervention Strategies: Decoding, Fluency, and Comprehension
We use the mother system. Children can express their needs. One point of clarification is needed. No mention of the needs of special education students was made when describing their holistic approach. The merging of the various methods, natural method, phonetic method, direct method and audio-lingual method, form an eclectic approach. This approach, while not ignoring formal instruction in grammar and language structure, 1 provides immersion in oral language, 2 is contextualized in true to life situations, and 3 attends to appropriate interactions in social context Thirumalai, While some primary schools in New Delhi start formal instruction by including a nursery school for four-year-old children, the primary school of this study made the decision a few years ago to no longer offer nursery school and begin instruction for children at the age of five in kindergarten.
Before presenting the instructional strategies used in kindergarten, an overview of the curriculum goals are noted. These goals are few:. As noted earlier, instruction is in English and learning to listen, speak, read and write in English is the goal. For the major part of the instructional time the following three strategies were used; Demonstration , Choral Drill , and Look and Say. Demonstration includes the use of real objects, performing actions, using gestures, and facial expressions.
It is used for presenting words like toy , bracelet , or hat. Demonstration can be used for sentence patterns that stand for concrete ideas. The teaching strategy includes the teacher doing the demonstration and students practicing with feedback from the teacher. Kindergarten teachers used Demonstration effectively in the teaching of nursery rhymes and songs. In a natural and enthusiastic voice, the teacher said the rhyme and used movement, hand patterns, and motions, pointing to something, touching a part, shaking something, or acting it out. The teacher spoke and acted out the line, and the children chimed in.
The nursery rhymes or songs were recited and performed many times. Demonstration was used for vocabulary development of these words; dancing , write , together , and boxing. This strategy was not limited to use in kindergarten; in fact, Demonstration was seen at all levels through Class V. Demonstration was, however, relied on more frequently in kindergarten and progressively used less through the class levels.
In Choral Drill the children all chant together following along as the teacher leads. It is the repeating of poems, nursery rhymes, the alphabet, an alphabet song, sentence patterns, and vocabulary lists.
Children repeat the melody and rhythm. Sometimes it is in unison with the teacher and sometimes in an echo pattern. The technique differs from Choral Reading in that this is for oral language development. Print is not connected to the activity. An additional difference is in the frequency of use.
Creating Brain-Efficient Curriculum
Choral Reading is likely to be used once or perhaps twice in the daily routine, while Choral Drill was used for nearly half of the instructional time in kindergarten. This poem was heard:. School is over, Oh, what fun! Lessons finished, Play begun. Let us try.
Children laughed loudly. Look and Say is the technique of students listening to the teacher and looking at the object or print, then repeating a word or sentence after the teacher. Children either watch as the teacher points to the words on the chalkboard or individually point to the print on a page or in a textbook.
The reading textbook used in kindergarten has a page for each letter of the alphabet. Each page has several illustrations and gives the word that corresponded to the illustration; for instance, an illustration of a kite and the word kite. On the day of observation, all four kindergarten classes at the school had progressed to the page that presented the letter L.
The teacher read one phrase while the children listened, then the children pointed to the appropriate picture and repeated the phrase. This exercise of starting from the first page of the reader and continuing to the current lesson was repeated three times. The teacher varied it only slightly by changing the rhythm and the volume. Teachers explained that Look and Say of the reading textbook had been a part of the routine of each day since the first day of school.
While these three strategies have similarities, each relates to the principles of learning in different ways. What appears most obvious is that all three require the mental processes of rehearsal and recitation. However, each strategy contributes to learning in uniquely different ways. Because understanding of the knowledge or concept has to happen first, Demonstration is important. Demonstration builds connections between new knowledge and what the child already knows.
Teachers repeatedly pointed out how Demonstration was crucial. One teacher expressed it this way:. Teacher B: First the children must have understanding. That is why I demonstrate and put things in the context of their every day lives.
I am demonstrating and talking in short simple sentences. The teacher is listening in or eavesdropping to be able to give feedback. Choral Drill presented speaking aloud and verbatim memorization. This occurred in unison or in the form of echo recitation. The purpose was for transfer to the long-term memory. Current brain research supports the idea of speaking aloud Haskell, ; Mayer, Speaking generates more electrical energy in the brain than just thinking about something Bower, ; Perry, Choral drill is also a powerful way to cause over-learning to occur.
Over-learning, that is, continuing to recite after something is memorized, creates deeper memory traces that make for longer retention Banich, ; Ridley Smith, The Look and Say strategy builds on the two aforementioned strategies by promoting understanding, giving more recitation and rehearsal, and continuing the over-learning process. This strategy is more complex, however, in that it adds print to the learning dynamic.
The recitation is still oral but the child is now looking at and pointing to the print. After the alphabet lessons were completed, teachers reported that even though they did not repeat it every day, they did not stop this recitation, but continued to include it in their routine at least once a week. Toward the second half of the year the intervals were increased to two or three weeks.
It is not uncommon for educators to label what was occurring here as rote learning, and therefore dismiss the activities as meaningless, or minimal at best. The learning that was occurring in these classrooms led the researchers to be less critical of this method of teaching content knowledge. While transfer of learning and being able to problem solve by creating, analyzing, and applying is the goal, this does not negate the need to create automaticity of important knowledge.
What was observed lends support to the research of Amabile and Baer asserting that acquiring detailed content knowledge does not necessarily depress creativity and problem-solving. These three research questions can be addressed together. Six more instructional strategies describe how teachers taught phonics, spelling, comprehension, and vocabulary development. Pictorial illustration is the use of blackboard drawings, diagrams, sketches, match-stick figures, photographs, maps, and textbook illustrations.
These are used for presenting words and structures that stand for concrete ideas. In Class I, illustrations in the reader are used for the words cake, snake, gate, face, table, chair, and crayon. While some of the illustrations look very similar to what might appear in other parts of the world, such as a toy train or yo-yo, many were uniquely related to life in India. Drawings of the breakfast foods aloo parantha, idlis, boiled eggs, and cheese sandwiches are labeled in English, matching the name that is most often used to describe the food item. A photograph of street vendor selling peanuts is used with the writing prompt in the follow up activity.
The researchers observed teachers using paper figures and match stick figures to represent the activities of jumping and leaving. In Class V, the stories in the reader related primarily to the topics of environmental studies and science, but a few folktales were included. A science lesson, Plants Can Be Fun, shows a series of illustrations depicting the rooting of a sweet potato in a jar—first showing the new roots growing and then showing stems and purple-veined leaves growing.
Several fifth-level teachers were observed engaging children in discussion of climbing Mt Everest. Children studied the photographic images of Indians that had met the challenge of climbing Mt. Teachers at each level used Verbal Illustration. An example of this was a lesson to a group of class V children presented by a guest teacher from a local newspaper.
To help the children to understand the concept of advertising and the influence of advertising, she framed the concept in a context that she believed the children would understand.
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